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Friday, July 31, 2015

Crystal clear images uncover secrets of hormone receptors

NIH researchers gain better understanding of how neuropeptide hormones trigger chemical reactions in cells
Many hormones and neurotransmitters work by binding to receptors on a cell’s exterior surface. This activates receptors causing them to twist, turn and spark chemical reactions inside cells. NIH scientists used atomic level images to show how the neuropeptide hormone neurotensin might activate its receptors. Their description is the first of its kind for a neuropeptide-binding G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), a class of receptors involved in a wide range of disorders and the target of many drugs.
Crystal clear hormone receptors
NIH Scientists describe for the first time how a neuropeptide hormone may give a G protein-coupled receptor. Courtesy of Grisshammer lab, NINDS, Bethesda, MD.
“G protein-coupled receptors are found throughout the body. Knowing how they work should help scientists devise better treatments,” said Reinhard Grisshammer, Ph.D., an investigator at the NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the senior author of the study published in Nature Communications.
Neurotensin is thought to be involved in Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, temperature regulation, pain, and cancer cell growth. Previously, Dr. Grisshammer and his colleagues showed how neurotensin binds to the part of its receptor located on a cell’s surface. In this study, they demonstrated how binding changes the structure of the rest of the receptor, which passes through a cell’s membrane and into its interior. There neurotensin receptors activate G proteins, a group of molecules inside cells that controls a series of chemical chain reactions.
For these experiments, scientists shot X-rays at crystallized neurotensin receptor molecules. Making crystals of receptors that activate G proteins is difficult. In most studies, scientists have investigated inactive receptors.
“The receptor we crystallized is very close to the active form found in nature,” said Dr. Grisshammer. “We may have the first picture of a peptide-binding G protein-coupled receptor just before it engages with the G protein.”
To achieve their results, the scientists made multiple genetic modifications to a less active version of the neurotensin receptor they had used before. Experiments performed in test tubes showed that mixing the receptor with neurotensin sparked the G protein reactions for which the scientists were looking.
When the scientists looked at the structure of the new crystals, they discovered how binding of neurotensin to the receptor caused critical parts of the receptor located below a cell’s surface to change shape. In particular, they saw that a region in the middle of the receptor dropped like a drawbridge to link the neurotensin binding site to parts of the receptor found inside cells that are important for G protein activation. The scientists concluded that this change may prepare the receptor for activating G proteins.
“For years scientists have made educated guesses about how peptide receptors work. Now we may finally know,” said Dr. Grisshammer.
His lab plans to continue its work in order to fully understand how neurotensin and other G protein-coupled receptors translate messages delivered by neuropeptides into reactions inside cells.

Paralyzed men move legs with new non-invasive spinal cord stimulation

After training, men move legs independently, without stimulation

Five men with complete motor paralysis were able to voluntarily generate step-like movements thanks to a new strategy that non-invasively delivers electrical stimulation to their spinal cords, according to a new study funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. The strategy, called transcutaneous stimulation, delivers electrical current to the spinal cord by way of electrodes strategically placed on the skin of the lower back. This expands to nine the number of completely paralyzed individuals who have achieved voluntary movement while receiving spinal stimulation, though this is the first time the stimulation was delivered non-invasively. Previously it was delivered via an electrical stimulation device surgically implanted on the spinal cord.
In the study, the men’s movements occurred while their legs were suspended in braces that hung from the ceiling, allowing them to move freely without resistance from gravity. Movement in this environment is not comparable to walking; nevertheless, the results signal significant progress towards the eventual goal of developing a therapy for a wide range of individuals with spinal cord injury.
“These encouraging results provide continued evidence that spinal cord injury may no longer mean a life-long sentence of paralysis and support the need for more research,” said Roderic Pettigrew, Ph.D., M.D., director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at NIH. “The potential to offer a life-changing therapy to patients without requiring surgery would be a major advance; it could greatly expand the number of individuals who might benefit from spinal stimulation. It’s a wonderful example of the power that comes from combining advances in basic biological research with technological innovation.”
The study was conducted by a team of researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles; University of California, San Francisco; and the Pavlov Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. The team was led by V. Reggie Edgerton, Ph.D., a distinguished professor of integrative biology and physiology at UCLA and Yury Gerasimenko, Ph.D., director of the laboratory of movement physiology at Pavlov Institute and a researcher in UCLA’s Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology. They reported their results in the Journal of Neurotrauma.
Image showing legs before and after treatment
Range of voluntary movement prior to receiving stimulation compared to movement after receiving stimulation, physical conditioning, and buspirone. The subject’s legs are supported so that they can move without resistance from gravity. The electrodes on the legs are used for recording muscle activity.
In a study published a little over a year ago, Edgerton — along with Susan Harkema, Ph.D., and Claudia Angeli, Ph.D., from the University of Louisville, Kentucky — reported that four men with complete motor paralysis were able to generate some voluntary movements while receiving electrical stimulation to their spinal cords. The stimulation came from a device called an epidural stimulator that was surgically implanted on the surface of the men’s spinal cords. On the heels of that success, Edgerton and colleagues began developing a strategy for delivering stimulation to the spinal cord non-invasively, believing it could greatly expand the number of paralyzed individuals who could potentially benefit from spinal stimulation.
“There are a lot of individuals with spinal cord injury that have already gone through many surgeries and some of them might not be up to or capable of going through another,” said Edgerton. “The other potentially high impact is that this intervention could be close to one-tenth the cost of an implanted stimulator.”
During this most recent study, five men — each paralyzed for more than two years — underwent a series of 45 minute sessions, once a week, for approximately 18 weeks, to determine the effects of non-invasive electrical stimulation on their ability to move their legs.
In addition to stimulation, the men received several minutes of conditioning each session, during which their legs were moved manually for them in a step-like pattern. The goal of the conditioning was to assess whether physical training combined with electrical stimulation could enhance efforts to move voluntarily. For the final four weeks of the study, the men were given the pharmacological drug buspirone, which mimics the action of serotonin and has been shown to induce locomotion in mice with spinal cord injuries. While receiving the stimulation, the men were instructed at different points to either try to move their legs or to remain passive.
At the initiation of the study, the men’s legs only moved when the stimulation was strong enough to generate involuntary step-like movements. However, when the men attempted to move their legs further while receiving stimulation, their range of movement significantly increased. After just four weeks of receiving stimulation and physical training, the men were able to double their range of motion when voluntarily moving their legs while receiving stimulation. The researchers suggest that this change was due to the ability of electrical stimulation to reawaken dormant connections that may exist between the brain and the spinal cord of patients with complete motor paralysis.
Surprisingly, by the end of the study, and following the addition of buspirone, the men were able to move their legs with no stimulation at all and their range of movement was — on average — the same as when they were moving while receiving stimulation.
“It’s as if we’ve reawakened some networks so that once the individuals learned how to use those networks, they become less dependent and even independent of the stimulation,” said Edgerton.
The researchers also made extensive recordings of electrical signals generated in the calf muscle and the muscle directly below the calf while the men attempted to flex their feet during stimulation. Over time, these signals increased with the same amount of stimulation, further supporting the hypothesis of re-established communication between the brain and spinal cord.
Edgerton has already initiated a new study to see whether these same men can be trained with non-invasive spinal stimulation to fully bear their weight, a feat that the four men with surgically implanted stimulators have already achieved. In addition, he is interested in determining whether, similar to epidural stimulation, non-invasive stimulation can help individuals regain some autonomic functions lost due to paralysis such as the ability to sweat, regulate blood pressure, and control bladder, bowel, and sexual function.
The hope is that further research can help determine whether non-invasive stimulation can restore function that will truly impact patient lives.
Edgerton also wants to test non-invasive stimulation on individuals who have partial paralysis. “We have focused on individuals with complete paralysis throughout this whole process because we knew that was going to be the toughest patient population to see changes in. We’ve always thought, and we have every reason to believe, that those individuals with partial injuries have even more room for improvement,” said Edgerton.
Though a non-invasive stimulation could offer advantages over a surgically implanted device, Edgerton says both need to continue to be developed. For example, a non-invasive stimulator might be useful in determining whether a patient will be receptive to neuromodulation, which could then help determine whether undergoing surgery to implant a stimulator is warranted. Alternatively, Edgerton speculates it may be possible early after an injury for non-invasive stimulation to help patients achieve a certain level of motor control that then allows them to continue to improve with physical rehabilitation and avoid surgery altogether.
“All patients are going to need something slightly different, and maybe non-invasive stimulation is going to be best in some cases and epidural stimulation in others,” said Edgerton. “What we need to do is maximize the clinical tool box that we have so that the physician and the patient can select a therapy that is best for them.”

Health Research:Improving gene therapy ♦ Depressive ruminations and the idling brain ♦ Pharmacists help patients with hypertension


Researchers resurrect ancient viruses in hopes of improving gene therapy Researchers have reconstructed an ancient virus that is highly effective at delivering gene therapies to the liver, muscle, and retina. This discovery could potentially be used to design gene therapies that are not only safer and more potent than therapies currently available, but may also help a greater number of patients.
Trying to quit smoking? First strengthen self-control The desire to quit smoking -- often considered a requirement for enrolling in treatment programs -- is not always necessary to reduce cigarette cravings, argues a review of addiction research. Early evidence suggests that exercises aimed at increasing self-control, such as mindfulness meditation, can decrease the unconscious influences that motivate a person to smoke.
Pharmacists help patients with hypertension Patients with hypertension benefit from interacting with a medical team that includes a pharmacist. Two studies showed pharmacist-included care teams delivered more hands-on and tailored medication regimens to patients, which yielded more effective blood-pressure control results than for those patients who did not have a pharmacist on hand.
Depressive ruminations and the idling brain Depressed people often find themselves preoccupied with guilty, shameful, or self-defeating thoughts for large parts of their day. These thoughts not only distract from other activities but also fail to resolve the underlying life issues. Further, the ideas that receive focused attention in these depressive ruminations are frequently quite distorted and lead to distress.
Treating ships' ballast water: Filtration preferable to disinfection Untreated ballast water discharge from ships can spread living organisms and even pathogens across the world thereby introducing non-native or invasive species into the local environment. Scientists therefore recommend using physical treatment processes such as filtration rather than electrochemical disinfection, which creates countless potentially toxic compounds.

Health News: Six firms selling pesticide tainted imported produce ♦ Predict amount of nicotine emitted from e-cigarettes ♦ Cheaper, high-performance prosthetic knee

Six firms selling pesticide tainted imported produce The California Department of Pesticide Regulation has fined six companies that ignored warnings and repeatedly sold imported fruits and vegetables with illegal pesticide residues to predominantly ethnic minority customers. According to an agency statement released July 28, the fines range from $10,000 to more than $20,000 for violating pesticide laws and potentially endangering consumers....
When surgeons listen to their preferred music, their stitches are better and faster From classical to rock, music can be heard in operating rooms across the world. When plastic surgeons listen to music they prefer, their surgical technique and efficiency when closing incisions is improved.
Novel model developed to predict amount of nicotine emitted from e-cigarettes Researchers have developed the first ever, evidence-based model that can predict with up to 90 percent accuracy the amount of nicotine emitted by an electronic cigarettes.
Paralyzed men move legs with new non-invasive spinal cord stimulation Five men with complete motor paralysis were able to voluntarily generate step-like movements thanks to a new strategy that non-invasively delivers electrical stimulation to their spinal cords. The strategy, called transcutaneous stimulation, delivers electrical current to the spinal cord by way of electrodes strategically placed on the skin of the lower back. This expands to nine the number of completely paralyzed individuals who have achieved voluntary movement while receiving spinal stimulation.
Cheaper, high-performance prosthetic knee Researchers report that they have designed a cheap prosthetic knee that mimics normal walking motion. They have calculated the ideal torque that a prosthetic knee should produce, given the mass of the leg segments, in order to induce able-bodied kinematics, or normal walking

Bacterial Research:Link between intestinal bacteria, depression found ♦ Atomic view of bacterial enzymes that help human digestion ♦ Treatment of relapsing bacterial infections

Link between intestinal bacteria, depression found The complex mechanisms of interaction and dynamics between the gut microbiota and its host have been illuminated by recent research. Data show that relatively minor changes in microbiota profiles or its metabolic activity induced by neonatal stress can have profound effects on host behavior in adulthood.
New research opens the door for treatment of relapsing bacterial infections A new discovery could put people with relapsing urinary tract infections (UTIs) on the fast track for a new therapeutic regimen. An estimated 150 million UTIs occur each year worldwide, accounting for $6 billion in healthcare costs, according to the American Urological Association.
Atomic view of bacterial enzymes that help human digestion A group of researchers has reached deep into the human gut, plucked out a couple enzymes produced by bacteria residing there and determined their biological activities and molecular structures -- details that should shed new light on how we digest many of the foods we eat.

Evolutionary war between microorganisms affecting human health Health experts have warned for years that the overuse of antibiotics is creating 'superbugs' able to resist drugs treating infection. Now scientists have found evidence that an invisible war between microorganisms may also be catching humans in the crossfire.

Childrens Health: Most adolescents feel better after gastric bypass ♦ Climbing a tree can improve cognitive skills ♦ Adolescents with sleep problems more likely to self-harm

Early prosocial behavior good predictor of kids' future Kindergartners' social-emotional skills are a significant predictor of their future education, employment and criminal activity, among other outcomes.
Climbing a tree can improve cognitive skills Climbing a tree and balancing on a beam can dramatically improve cognitive skills. The findings suggest working memory improvements can be made in just a couple of hours of these types of physical exercises.
Adolescents with sleep problems more likely to self-harm There is a strong relationship between sleep problems such as insomnia, and self-harm, according to findings in a new Norwegian study. The researchers say that depressive symptoms accounted for some, but not all, of the association to self-harming. However, the latter association remained significant even in the fully adjusted analyses.
Positive reinforcement plays key role in cognitive task performance in ADHD kids A little recognition for a job well done means a lot to children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder -- more so than it would for typically developing kids.
Most adolescents feel better after gastric bypass Teenagers suffering from severe obesity generally feel worse than their peers, but after undergoing gastric bypass nearly all experience improved mental health. One in five, however, still suffers from symptoms of depression -- some quite seriously.




Squab (domesticated pigeon) recalled

Greenland Trading Corp., a Paterson, N.J., establishment, is recalling approximately 12,672 pounds of squab (domesticated pigeon) produced in France that were not presented at the U.S. point of entry for inspection, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today. Without the benefit of full inspection, a possibility of adverse health consequences exists.
The squabs were imported from a French establishment not eligible to export meat or poultry product to the United States on June 21, 2014; August 16, 2014; and February 16, 2015. The following products are subject to recall:
  • 8.8 lb. cardboard boxes containing 12 individually plastic wrapped squab weighing less than one pound, labeled “AL MARAAI SQUAB HALAL.”
The products subject to recall bear the establishment number “79.213.004 CE” on the box containing the individual packages. They were processed by Earl Piegonneaux Fermier Du Poitou of Sauvian France. These products were shipped to port #4601, Port Newark, New York, N.Y.
The problem was discovered by FSIS investigators conducting product surveillance at Virgin World Foods, DBA/Banou International Food, in Hopyard, Calif. FSIS and the company have received no reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products. Anyone concerned about a reaction should contact a healthcare provider.
Consumers and media with questions about the recall can contact Mohamed Mebaraz, Vice President of Greenland Trading Corp., at (973) 225-0322.

Thursday, July 30, 2015

High-resolution 3D images reveal the muscle mitochondrial power grid

NIH mouse study overturns scientific ideas on energy distribution in muscle
A new study overturns longstanding scientific ideas regarding how energy is distributed within muscles for powering movement. Scientists are reporting the first clear evidence that muscle cells distribute energy primarily by the rapid conduction of electrical charges through a vast, interconnected network of mitochondria — the cell’s “powerhouse” — in a way that resembles the wire grid that distributes power throughout a city. The study offers an unprecedented, detailed look at the distribution system that rapidly provides energy throughout the cell where it is needed for muscle contraction.
The scientists accomplished the results using state-of-the-art imaging technologies at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This new information may lead to a better understanding of many diseases linked to energy utilization in the heart and skeletal muscle such as heart disease, mitochondrial diseases, and muscular dystrophy, they say.
“The discovery of this mechanism for rapid distribution of energy throughout the muscle cell will change the way scientists think about muscle function and will open up a whole new area to explore in health and disease,” says Robert S. Balaban, Ph.D., scientific director of NHLBI’s Division of Intramural Research and chief of NHLBI’s Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics. Dr. Balaban is the study’s co-leader along with Sriram Subramaniam, Ph.D., a researcher with NCI’s Laboratory of Cell Biology. This landmark study is the featured cover article in the July 30 print issue of the journal Nature.
For the current experiments, the NIH scientists collaborated in a detailed study of the mitochondria structure, biochemical composition, and function in mouse skeletal muscle cells. The researchers used 3D electron microscopy as well as super-resolution optical imaging techniques to show that most of the mitochondria form highly connected networks in a way that resembles electrical transmission lines in a municipal power grid.
The movement of muscles, from flexing your arms to the pumping of the heart, requires lots of energy that must be distributed throughout the cell. For example, the skeletal muscle rate of energy utilization can increase 100-fold with strenuous exercise. As a result, muscle cells contain many mitochondria, microscopic structures that are specially equipped to convert foods, including sugars and fats, into useable high-energy molecules, particularly adenosine triphosphate (ATP), for work. As part of this process, known as oxidative phosphorylation, the mitochondria, like small cellular batteries, use an electrical voltage across their membranes as an intermediate energy source in converting food into ATP. Thus, this mitochondrial membrane voltage can be considered one of the primary sources of energy in the cell.
Scientists have long-believed that mitochondria distribute energy to muscle cells mainly by molecular diffusion, or the slow spread of the end products of oxidative phosphorylation, including ATP and other compounds, through the crowded cell. However, recent genetic studies suggest that diffusion alone does not fully support the distribution of energy in heart and skeletal muscle cells. Researchers have suspected that a faster, more efficient energy pathway might exist but have found little proof of its existence — until now.
After using high-resolution 3D images to reveal the structure of the mitochondrial power grid, the scientists used specially designed optical probes to subsequently demonstrate that these mitochondrial “wires” were electrically conductive. Using these probes, the researchers were able to demonstrate that most of the mitochondria were in direct electrical communication through the interconnecting network, demonstrating that the mitochondria are electrically coupled and can rapidly distribute the mitochondrial membrane voltage — the primary energy for ATP production — throughout the cell.
The study provides unprecedented images of how these mitochondria are arranged in muscle. “Structurally, the mitochondria are arranged in such a way that permits the flow of potential energy in the form of the mitochondrial membrane voltage throughout the cell to power ATP production and subsequent muscle contraction, or movement,” Dr. Balaban explained. Mitochondria located on the edges of the muscle cell near blood vessels and oxygen supply are optimized for generating the mitochondrial membrane voltage, while the interconnected mitochondria deep in the muscle are optimized for using the voltage to produce ATP, Balaban added.
“These observations solve the problem of how muscle rapidly distributes energy in the cell for movement,” Dr. Balaban said. “The findings also challenge the older model that energy is distributed by the slow diffusion of high-energy molecules through the remarkably dense muscle cell.”
The use of focused-ion beam scanning electron microscopy, called FIB-SEM, played a critical role in unraveling the 3D architecture of mitochondrial networks in these muscle cells. Dr. Subramaniam and his colleagues were the first to develop and use this imaging approach almost a decade ago to image cells and tissue.
“We originally developed these biological imaging methods to explore mechanisms of HIV-1 infection and structural changes in melanoma cells,” said Dr. Subramaniam. “It is very satisfying to see how the methods are now useful in a completely different sphere of biology with this interdisciplinary collaboration.”
Identifying this basic property of the muscle cell in how it distributes energy has potential implications for disease diagnosis and treatment. These findings could spark new avenues of scientific and medical research, the scientists said. In the future, scientists may use muscle biopsies or sophisticated non-invasive imaging techniques to determine how defects in mitochondrial networks impact different diseases.

DNP: Urgent health warning

Food Standards Scotland issues an urgent warning against the highly toxic substance found in some diet pills known as DNP. It is not safe for human consumption, yet continues to be unlawfully marketed as a ‘fat burner’.
About DNP
DNP is an industrial chemical which is being marketed and sold on the internet as a fat-burning agent, in tablet, capsule, powder and liquid forms. DNP products are marketed to those who want to lose weight, and to the bodybuilding community, as a quick way of burning fat by speeding up the metabolism. But this can result in a dangerously fast metabolic rate.
DNP is the chemical 2, 4-dinitrophenol, but is also known as Dinosan, Dinitra, Dnoc, Solfo Black, Nitrophen, Aldifen and Chemox. Products containing DNP commonly use statements such as containing ‘100% caffeine’, along with additional claims like ‘burns fat’, or ‘boosts muscle growth’.
Consumption of DNP can lead to acute poisoning, with side effects including dehydration, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, flushed skin, excessive sweating, dizziness, headaches, rapid breathing and rapid or irregular heartbeat. In some cases it can result in coma or death. FSS urgently warns the public not to take any products containing DNP as it is not fit for human consumption.
Anyone who believes they may have taken DNP should seek medical advice immediately.

Australia: Phoenixl branded Cola Lemonade, Light Cola, Orange Fizz & Raspberry Fizz Recalled

The Better Drinks Co Limited is recalling Phoenix 330 ml branded Cola (single and 4 pack) Lemonade, Light Cola, Orange Fizz & Raspberry Fizz
Phoenix images.jpg
Phoenix 330ml branded Cola (single and 4 pack), Lemonade, Light Cola, Orange Fizz & Raspberry Fizz
Best Before Dates: 13/04/16 to 07/07/16
The recall is due to a small number of bottles having damaged rims and possibly containing small glass particles. Food products containing glass fragments may cause illness/injury if consumed.
The product was sold Nationally
The recalled products have been available for sale in BWS stores, cafes and independent grocers in all states/territories.
The supplier was The Better Drinks Co Limited
Consumers should not drink these products and should return them to the place of purchase for a full refund.

For further information contact The Better Drinks Co on 1800 132 583

Australia: Buchi Kombucha recalled

Australia: Buchi Kombucha  recalled
Roots in Nature Pty Ltd recalling Buchi Kombucha 500 ml Bottles
Buchi kombucha.png
Buchi Kombucha 500ml Bottles - All batches
including --
Buchi Mama (The Original) Kombucha
Buchi Ginger & Turmeric Kombucha
Buchi Hibiscus, Galangal and Lime Kombucha
Buchi Deep Greens Kombucha
Customers are advised that Buchi Kombucha (Roots in Nature Pty Ltd) is recalling all of its kombucha due to it containing alcohol.
What are the hazards?
The kombucha may contain level of alcohol at levels that may be intoxicating.
Where the product was sold
  • New South Wales
  • Queensland
  • Victoria
Traders who sold this product
Wray Organics, IGA, Flannerys, independent cafes and farmers markets
Supplier
Roots in Nature Pty Ltd
What should consumers do?
Customers are asked to return the product to the point of purchase for immediate full cash refund. For further information please call 1300 160 890.

Ireland Recall of Raw Milk Corleggy Cheeses

Recall of Raw Milk Corleggy Cheeses Due to Detection of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Summary
Product:
All varieties of Corleggy Cheeses including: Drumlin cheese (all flavours), Corleggy cheese, Cavanbert cheese, Creeny cheese; approval number: IE 1816 EC; all sizes.
Batch Code:
All batches and all expiry dates.
Country Of Origin:
Ireland
Corleggy Cheeses is recalling all batches of its raw milk cheeses due to the detection of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in two batches of its cow’s milk cheese.  The cheeses are supplied to some restaurants and retail shops.  They are also sold directly at food markets.  Consumers are advised not to eat the affected cheeses.
Nature Of Danger:
VTEC may cause severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, although sometimes the infection causes non-bloody diarrhoea or no symptoms. In some groups, particularly children under 5 years of age and the elderly, the infection can also cause a complication called haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in which the kidneys fail.

Northern Ireland: Four SuperValu soups recalled

SuperValu recalls four soups that possibly contain plastic
SuperValu has recalled four flavors of its soup because they possibly contain small pieces of plastic. If you have bought one of the products, do not eat or drink it. The products were only distributed in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.The products may contain small pieces of plastic.

Product details
Product: SuperValu Carrot & Corriander Soup
Size: 400 g ‘Use by’ date: 5 August 2015

Product: SuperValu Chicken & Vegetable Soup
Size: 400 g‘Use by’ dates: 4 August 2015, 5 August 2015

Product: SuperValu Tomato & Basil Soup
Size: 400 g ‘Use by’ dates: 4 August 2015, 5 August 2015  

Product: SuperValu Vegetable Soup
Size: 400 g ‘Use by’ dates: 4 August 2015, 5 August 2015
Advice to consumers
If you have bought one of the products listed above, do not consume it. Instead, return it to the shop for a full refund.

SuperValu has recalled the affected products from customers. It has also placed point-of-sale notices in stores.No other SuperValu products are affected.

Health Research: High intensity training helps ease arthritis pains,♦ Evolutionary link between diet, stomach acidity ♦ Climbing a tree can improve cognitive skills

Evolutionary link between diet, stomach acidity An analysis of data on stomach acidity and diet in birds and mammals suggests that high levels of stomach acidity developed not to help animals break down food, but to defend animals against food poisoning. The work raises interesting questions about the evolution of stomach acidity in humans, and how modern life may be affecting both our stomach acidity and the microbial communities that live in our guts.
Bioethicists call for end to 'pay-to-play' clinical research Charging people to participate in research studies is likely to undermine the fundamental ethical basis of clinical research, according to a new paper written by bioethicists. The paper outlines the arguments for and against the concept of "pay-to-play" research, ultimately concluding that this type of approach compromises the overall integrity of clinical research
Colonoscopies of the future: Adjustable-focus endoscope helps to reduce discomfort An endoscopic probe that delivers adjustable-focus capabilities in a slimmer package has been developed by researchers. The findings could ultimately facilitate more effective and less painful imaging of internal tissues.
Climbing a tree can improve cognitive skills, Climbing a tree and balancing on a beam can dramatically improve cognitive skills, according to a study. The findings suggest working memory improvements can be made in just a couple of hours of these types of physical exercises.
High intensity training helps ease arthritis pains Arthritis: it’s a disease that sneaks up on you. Fingers and toes slowly but surely become stiff and painful. A nice morning stretch is no longer all it takes to get your body moving. Arthritis is a chronic illness that sinks its claws into your body, and causes inflammation in your joints. It can destroy your joints, which causes weakness and loss of movement. New research suggests that high intensity training can help with the pain that the illness provides.

Health News:Tarheel Q salmonella outbreak: 1 dead, 280 illnesses ♦ Stress hormone reduces heroin craving ♦ Marked improvement in health, health care for Medicare patients

Tarheel Q salmonella outbreak: 1 dead, 280 illnesses As of July 8, the Salmonella outbreak connected with the Tarheel Q restaurant in Lexington, NC has been designated as over with at least 280 people sickened, according to a July 28 count. One person died. The designation was announced after two incubation periods (six days for most Salmonella cases) had passed without new illnesses
Marked improvement in health, health care for Medicare patients In a 15-year study of older Medicare patients, researchers saw an estimated 20 percent drop in mortality, about 30 percent fewer hospitalizations, and 40 percent reduction in deaths after hospitalization.
Two new tests may make diagnosing and monitoring diabetes easier and more affordable Two new potential methods for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes in its standard and gestational forms. These findings may lead to easier, timelier, and more affordable ways of identifying and treating this chronic disease
Hormones influence unethical behavior Hormones play a two-part role in encouraging and reinforcing cheating and other unethical behavior, according to new research. With cheating scandals a persistent threat on college campuses and financial fraud costing businesses more than $3.7 trillion annually, researchers looked to the reproductive hormone testosterone and the stress hormone cortisol.
Stress hormone reduces heroin craving Every addiction is characterized by a strong desire for a certain addictive substance, be it nicotine, alcohol or other drug. Researchers recently conducted a study on heroin addiction and demonstrated that the stress hormone cortisol can reduce addictive cravings.